Alaska Sea Grant

Teacher Resources

Fishery Facts

FISHING FOR THE FUTURE—FISHERY FACTS
The world’s fisheries are under more pressure than ever before. From 1950 to 1990, there was a fivefold increase in the world annual fish catch. The average yearly per person fish consumption in the industrialized world (59 pounds) is three times that of people in the developing world (20 pounds). Fish demand remains high: An additional 15.5 million tons of fish will be required by 2010 just to maintain current rates of fish consumption. Today, 70 percent of the planet’s marine stocks are fully exploited or overexploited. The number of people fishing and practicing aquaculture worldwide has doubled since 1970. More than 21 million people are full-time fishers, and 200 million depend on fishing for their livelihood. Asia contains the vast majority of the world’s fishers. In the early 1950s, developed countries took 80 percent of the world’s fish catch. Today, they take only 36 percent of the catch, while developing countries take 64 percent. The technology used to catch fish and the number of fish caught per fisher varies enormously. Modern fleets are the most environmentally destructive, as they use enhancements such as airplanes, radios, seafloor maps, and video sonar to track down fish schools. Once they have found the fish, these fleets use large nets to drag up not only the targeted fish but also coral, the seafloor, and around 27 million tons annually of “by-catch”—non-marketable fish that are killed and thrown overboard. To compensate for reduced wild fish stocks, more and more fish are being farmed. Nearly a third of all fish for food is harvested from aquaculture. For every 11 pounds of beef grown globally, there are now 4.5 pounds of farm-raised fish produced. Fish farming causes environmental destruction comparable to the replacement of rain forest with cattle ranches. About 11 pounds of wild ocean fish need to be caught to feed each pound of farmed species. Thailand, which has one of the biggest aquaculture industries, has lost half its mangrove forests due to shrimp farming. Densely stocked salmon farms in British Colombia, Canada, produce waste (including fertilizer, effluent, and fishmeal) equivalent to that generated by half a million people. Despite these numbers, there is still hope for the world’s fisheries. Fisheries can be restored through the adoption of sustainable fishing practices. With the proper incentives, fishers can be encouraged and rewarded in their effort to sustainably manage marine resources. For example, partnerships between local communities and scientists in the central islands of the Philippines resulted in the establishment of marine reserves to help manage overexploited fisheries. The establishment of no-fishing zones in the reserves has increased catches in adjacent fishing grounds. Another solution is to use the power of the market to encourage sustainable fishing practices. The Marine Stewardship Council together with the World Wildlife Federation and Unilever, one of the largest makers of fish products, has developed a certification process that includes a label telling consumers that fish products came from fisheries certified as sustainable.

References: The New Internationalist magazine issue 325, www.newint.org; The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, www.fao.org; Environmental News Service, February 2002, www.enn.com

Teacher Background - The Bidarki Story

Teacher Background

The Bidarki Story
“Bidarki” is a common name for species of chiton that is common in suitable rocky intertidal habitat of Southcentral Alaska. This name reflects the history of the area: “bidarki” is the Russian word for the type of boat that that the animal resembles when it curls up into a defensive half-circle. Katharina tunicata, the scientific name for the species bestowed to honor Lady Katherine Douglas who first described it, has given rise to the common name “katy chiton.” Like all other members of the chiton family, the bidarki has a skeleton of eight overlapping hard plates surrounded by and held together by a fleshy girdle and protecting the large foot on its underside. In this species, the girdle is black and leathery and may cover the plates entirely like a jacket, which has given rise to yet another common name, the black leather chiton. Similar to snails, the mouth of chitons (at one end of the foot) contains a tongue-like, hard radula, which the animal uses to munch on the base of kelp fronds and scrape algae off rocks, including the calcified hard crust formed by coralline algae.

Intertidal ecologists began to focus more on bidarkis when they read about a northern Washington beach study that demonstrated their important role in structuring the community. The research, done by Dr. Robert Paine of the University of Washington, showed the bidarkis had “strong interactions” with seaweeds they grazed. With bidarkis present, the coralline algae crust and other short, stubby algae thrive because the large kelps that would shade them out or overrun them with large holdfasts are kept in check. With bidarkis absent, the kelp community thrives instead. As the community shifts dramatically in structure, it shifts the nature of food and shelter for a host of other marine invertebrates and the substrate for seaweed species to settle and thrive.

Bidarkis have traditionally been of interest to Alaska Natives in the Sugpiaq (Chugach Alutiiq) communities of Port Graham and Nanwalek in Kachemak Bay as an important subsistence food, for more than 100 years. By the year 2000, however, concern was growing among community members who had observed a decline over the previous 10-15 years. The harvesters agreed that bidarkis were harder to find and smaller in size. The tribal governments became concerned about the future of the harvest.

Beginning in 2002, University of Washington scientist Anne Salomon traveled to Port Graham and Nanwalek to work with the tribal government and community members to study the cause of the decline. Unraveling the mystery required scientific investigations, experiments, and the assistance of a social scientist, Henry Huntington, to interview community members in order to reconstruct the history of the ecosystem. Insights from this historical information would not have been possible without the repository of traditional ecological knowledge that rested in the memory of tribal elders and other long-term residents.

Anne Salomon selected eleven study sites, through consultation with the elders and surveys of current bidarki harvesters, that included some heavily harvested sites as well as sites that were seldom or never harvested due to remoteness or sea conditions. She assembled teams of observers that included community members, and they made repeated counts of bidarkis in quadrat plots (the same sampling method that students practice in Investigation 4 of this unit). In addition, the team measured a number of variables at each site, including seawater temperatures, the maximum force of wave shock, and the number of other bird and marine mammal predators present at each site.

Henry Huntington, an Alaskan social scientist, reviewed and historical records and midden pile remains dating back to more than 4,500 years BP, and conducted interviews with Sugpiaq elders about subsistence harvest practices, the composition of the harvest, and changes in the local ecology and economy that they had observed.

The analysis of quantitative data collected at the study sites led to the conclusion that, in agreement with the harvesters’ qualitative observations, bidarkis were indeed smaller, on average, and in less dense concentrations at harvested sites closer to the villages. Experiments involving the exclusion of bidarkis from small areas also confirmed that the bidarki played the same “strong interactor” role in the intertidal areas of Kachemak Bay that it played in the earlier study done in Washington. Measurements of the other variables at the site yielded no consistent pattern relative to bidarki size and density, with the exception of the numbers of sea otters, which were more plentiful at the low-density sites.

The combination of natural and social science methods provided the following story and hypothesis about the cause of the bidarki decline:

•    Prior to the Russian occupation in the 1780s, the Sugpiaq Natives were semi-nomadic, traveling from small settlements to seasonal camps for specific harvest activities. Remains from archaeological sites contain shells, indicating that their harvest of marine invertebrates modified the intertidal ecosystems for at least the past 4,500 years. Remains from a 700 year old site in Port Graham contained shells, with the greatest number being those of the large hairy triton snail (Neptunea).

•    After the arrival of the Russian fur traders, the fur trading companies and the Russian Orthodox Church centralized services, which led to larger, more permanently established villages. The fur trade wiped out the sea otter in Kachemak Bay and Cook Inlet by the early 1900s.

•    In the absence of sea otter predators, the chitons they preyed on became more abundant, along with other prey species such as sea urchins, sea cucumbers, crab, clams, cockles, mussels, and octopus.

•    Commercial fishing and canneries gradually replaced fur trading by the late 1880s, which continued to promote larger, permanent settlements. Subsistence harvest efforts became concentrated around these villages. The cash economy was introduced in the early 1900s. Wooden dories were replaced by motorboats for fishing and travel.

•    From the 1920s to the 1950s, people harvested the broad range of marine invertebrates that were available and abundant

•    The sea otter was protected in 1911 and populations recovered, returning to waters and reefs off Port Graham and Nanwalek in the early 1960s.

•    In the early 1980s, freezers began to be used to store food. Dungeness crab and shrimp fisheries crashed and marine invertebrate populations became less abundant.

•    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound had large social, cultural, and economic impacts on the villages. Local hire of cleanup crews provided high incomes for a short period of time. Many people bought new and better boats and motors and began to travel farther for harvests.

•    The hypothesis for the cause of the decline of bidarkis is that, after the return of the sea otter to the area, all of the factors described above resulted in a “synergistic serial depletion” of all of the marine invertebrate species that humans and sea otters both preyed on. “Serial depletion” refers to the historical sequence of depleting a series of prey species in a step-wise fashion, by focusing efforts on a preferred species (e.g., sea cucumbers, Dungeness crabs, hairy triton whelks) until it becomes scarce or too hard to find and then switching to the next preferred species (e.g., clams, cockles, bidarkis) after each formerly preferred species is reduced to such low numbers that local populations can’t recover. The combination of human and sea otter predation on each species was “synergistic,” in that the effect was more intense because of the combination of predators focused on the same prey species and then switched to the same alternative species.

•    Based on this hypothesis, the localized depletion of bidarkis around the villages would then be at the end of a chain of events that created the permanent settlements (which localized human harvest effort), increased the efficiency of harvest through improved boat and food storage technology, and reintroduced sea otters to their former range. The end result was that each individual otter and human now consumes more bidarkis per capita because alternative food sources are scarce. (Another term that captures the hypothesis is “fishing down the food web.”)

One of the unique aspects of the bidarki story is the collaboration of scientists and community members in putting together and telling the story. The tribal governments participated in the study as the basis for a local management plan for bidarkis. Armed with a better understanding of the causes of the decline, they are working on local rules to regulate the harvest so it is sustainable. The following is taken from a portion of the final report on the project Imam Cimiucia: Our Changing Sea, co-authored by “the bidarki team” of scientists and community members:

“You have to ask yourself, ‘Can that beach sustain that?’ You have to think about these things if we want our kids to enjoy it.” (Walter Meganack Jr., Chairman, Port Graham Corporation)

Where does this leave us? Thinking about the future, there are grounds for concern and reasons for hope. There is no question that the local ecosystem has changed. There is also no question that the human communities have changed. But these changes have also forced people to think about the future, to think about the consequences of their own actions. People are asking what they can do to make things better.

There are many ideas for how to better manage the actions of people from the villages. This is what management boils down to: changing human behavior. We cannot manage ecosystems but we can consider carefully how we act and how our actions affect the rest of the system. One starting point is within our villages themselves.

On the foundation of Sugpiaq knowledge and wisdom, we can take action to protect the animals we use and the ecosystem that sustains them. Those actions may be similar and/or different from the traditional management practices that the Elders refer to. A combination of local knowledge and science can be used to develop alternative management strategies. The effectiveness of those strategies can be monitored by using scientific techniques as well as traditional observations. A management plan for bidarkis may include size limits or seasonal closures during spawning season, protecting nursery areas, or closing some beaches entirely to harvest to promote the recovery of bidarki populations.

You have listened to a story told through the voice of many storytellers: Elders, village residents, an anthropologist, several photographers, and a marine biologist. Collectively, we have pieced together bits of our history and our combined knowledge to more holistically understand the complex drivers of change in our ocean home. By sharing this knowledge, we hope to inspire solutions for the future. By integrating knowledge systems and delving into our ecological and social past we hope to foster a culture of sustainability, one that acknowledges both ecological and human systems and the need to shift our time frame of thinking into the deep past and far into the future.


References:
Salomon, A.K. 2006. Investigating the relative roles of natural factors and shoreline harvest in altering the community structure, dynamics and diversity of the Kenai Peninsula’s rocky intertidal. Final report, GEM Project 030647, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, Anchorage, Alaska. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/Files.cfm?doc=/Store/Final_Reports/532pdf&

Salomon, A.K, N.M. Tanape Sr., and H.P. Huntington. 2007. Serial depletion of marine invertebrates leads to the decline of a strongly interacting grazer. Ecological Applications 17(6):1752-1770.

Salomon, A.K., and L. Williams. 2007. Effects of chiton depletion and traditional ecological knowledge. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, July 2007, pp. 247-249.

Bibliography and Resources

Bidarki Specimen

If you would like to show your students a preserved bidarki specimen, they are available at Ward's Science. Product number 687002.

Fishing

Photos and/or illustrations of traditional , previous and current fishing technology. 

Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch has seafood guides to help consumers make choices that are good for them and also good for the ocean.

Popcorn Scarcity is an activity that further explores what happens when people compete for finite resources.

NOAA's Fisheries Feature: Bycatch has a wealth of information.

U.S. and International Seabird Bycatch Reduction Efforts has many links to sources of information.

Seabirds and Longlines information and reports. 

Game of Life. Topic: overfishing, sustainable seafood. 


Marine Debris

Videos

Read about the Fur Seal Disentagnlement Project in the Pribilof Islands.   

Kids against marine litter  

Plastics and Marine Life:You Are What you Eat: is a PBS, Jean-Michel Cousteau Ocean Adventure activity to help students find out the ways marine life can be affected by plastics.


Turning the Tide on Trash: Marine Debris Curriculum 

 


Human Impacts 

Survey Data Sheets 

Ocean Conservancy has information about issues, events, and activities related to the ocean and the health of the ocean.

Oil spills
http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/540.html

What's the Story on Oil Spills? has some alarming facts about oil spills

Kids’ Pages on oil in the sea
 
Student Activity: Cleaning up an Oil Spill

Prince William’s Oily Mess: A Tale of Recovery


Environmental Literacy Council information on oil spills.

Ocean Change Initiative information about impacts on the ocean.


Other Resources
Videos
Alaska Sea Grant and CACS. 2004. Life on the Beach: Among Friends and Anemones. Intertidal ecology and beach etiquette. 20 min.

PBS. The Shape of Life . Eight-part series, each focused on a different marine invertebrate phylum and body plan. Available as two-DVD set.

Rodger Jackman Production. 1998. Life at the Edge of the Sea. Thirteen/WNET, New York. 55 min.

Marine Invertebrate Identification Guides
Center for Alaskan Coastal Studies. 1999. Who's Who in the Intertidal Zone? An Atlas for Peterson Bay Field Station.

Harbo, Rick. 1999. Whelks to Whales. Harbour Publishing Co. 248 pp.

Kozloff, Eugene. 2003. Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast. University of Washington Press.

O’Clair, R.M., and C.E. O’Clair. 1998. Southeast Alaska’s Rocky Shores: Animals. Plant Press, Auke Bay, Alaska. 562 pp.

O’Clair, R.M., S.C. Lindstrom, and I.R. Brodo.1996. Southeast Alaska’s Rocky Shores: Seaweeds and Lichens. Plant Press, Auke Bay, Alaska. 152 pp.

Ricketts, E.F., J. Calvin, and J.W. Hedgpeth. 1985. Between Pacific Tides. Revised by D.W. Phillips. Fifth Edition. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 652 pp.
 


 

Bidarki Story References

References:
Salomon, A.K. 2006. Investigating the relative roles of natural factors and shoreline harvest in altering the community structure, dynamics and diversity of the Kenai Peninsula’s rocky intertidal. Final report, GEM Project 030647, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, Anchorage, Alaska. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/Files.cfm?doc=/Store/Final_Reports/532pdf&

Salomon, A.K, N.M. Tanape Sr., and H.P. Huntington. 2007. Serial depletion of marine invertebrates leads to the decline of a strongly interacting grazer. Ecological Applications 17(6):1752-1770.

Salomon, A.K., and L. Williams. 2007. Effects of chiton depletion and traditional ecological knowledge. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, July 2007, pp. 247-249.

 

Alaska Grade Level Expectations

Unit 5 of the Alaska Seas and Watersheds Curriculum, Humans and the Ocean, addresses the following GLEs.

Science | Reading | Writing | Math

Science

Science: GLEs for Grade 5

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by:
[5] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing, describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations, inferring, and communicating.

 

 

 

x

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by:
[5] SA1.2 using quantitative and qualitative observations to create their own inferences and predictions.

 

 

x

x

 

The student demonstrates an understanding that interactions with the environment provide an opportunity for understanding scientific concepts by:
[5] SA3.1 identifying the limiting factors (e.g., weather, human influence, species interactions) that determine which plants and/or animals survive.

x

 

 

 

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of how to integrate scientific knowledge and technology to address problems by:
[5] SE1.1 identifying a community problem or issue and describing the information needed to develop a scientific solution. (L)*

x

 

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by:
[5] SE2.1 investigating a problem or project over a specified period of time and identifying the tools and processes used in that project. (L)*

x

x

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by:
[5] SE2.2 comparing multiple explanations (e.g., oral traditions, folklore, scientific theory) of everyday events (e.g., weather, seasonal changes). (L)

x

 

 

x

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations affect our lives and society by:
[5] SE3.1 describing the various effects of an innovation (e.g., snow machines, airplanes, immunizations) on the safety, health, and environment of the local community. (L)

 

x

 

x

x

 

Science: GLEs for Grade 3

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by:
[3] SA1.1 asking questions, predicting, observing, describing, measuring, classifying, making generalizations, inferring and communicating.

 

 

 

x

 

The student develops an understanding of the processes of science by:
[3] SA1.2 observing and describing their world to answer simple questions.

 

 

 

x

 

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the attitudes and approaches to scientific inquiry by:
[3] SA2.1 answering, “how do you know?” questions with reasonable answers.

 

 

x

 

 

The student demonstrates an understanding that interactions with the environment provide an opportunity for understanding scientific concepts by:
[3] SA3.1 observing local conditions that determine which plants and/or animals survive. (L)

x

 

 

 

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of how to integrate scientific knowledge and technology to address problems by:
[3] SE1.1 identifying local problems and discussing solutions. (L)

x

 

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by:
[3] SE2.1 identifying local tools and materials used in everyday life (L)

x

x

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations affect our lives and society by:
[4] SE3.1 listing the positive and negative effects of a scientific discovery

 

x

 

x

x

 

Science: GLEs for Grade 4

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

The student develops an understanding of the processes of science by:
[4] SA1.2 observing, measuring and collecting data from explorations and using this information to classify, predict, and communicate.

 

 

 

x

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by:
[4] SA1.2 observing, measuring, and collecting data from explorations and using this information to classify, predict, and communicate.

 

 

 

x

 

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the attitudes and approaches to scientific inquiry by:
[4] SA2.1 supporting their ideas with observations and peer review. (L)*

 

 

x

 

 

The student demonstrates an understanding that all organisms are linked to each other and their physical environments through the transfer and transformation of matter and energy by:
[4] SC3.1 identifying examples of living and non-living things and the relationship between them (e.g., living things need water, herbivores need plants).

x

 

 

 

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of how to integrate scientific knowledge and technology to address problems by:
[4] SE1.1 recognizing that tools (e.g., spear, hammer, hand lens, kayak, computer) and processes (e.g., drying fish, sewing, photography) are an important part of human cultures

x

 

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by:
[4] SE2.1 identifying the function of a variety of tools (e.g., spear, hammer, hand lens, kayak, computer)

x

x

x

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding that solving problems involves different ways of thinking, perspectives, and curiosity by:
[4] SE2.2 identifying multiple explanations (e.g., oral traditions, folklore, scientific theory) of everyday events (e.g., weather, seasonal changes). (L)*

x

 

 

x

 

The student demonstrates an understanding of how scientific discoveries and technological innovations affect our lives and society by:
[4] SE3.1 listing the positive and negative effects of a scientific discovery

 

x

 

x

x

The student demonstrates an understanding of the bases of the advancement of scientific knowledge by:
[4] SG2.1 recognizing the need for repeated measurements.

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

Reading: Grade 5 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[5] 2.2.1 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by locating information explicitly stated in narrative and informational text to answer literal comprehension questions*

x

       

5] 2.2.2 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by self-monitoring comprehension by formulating questions while reading or rereading (e.g., for clarification, confirmation, correction)*(L)

x

       

[5] 2.2.3 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by making inferences (e.g., predicts logical outcomes, such as how would the story have been different if ____, deduces missing outcome or information, such as where a story takes place, if not directly stated)

x

x

x

   

[5] 2.2.4 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by drawing conclusions based on information presented explicitly in the text (e.g., cause and effect, character motivation)*

x

x

x

   

[5] 2.3.1 The student reads text aloud by reading orally with rhythm, flow, and expression showing understanding of punctuation and other conventions of print* (L)

x

x

     

[5] 2.4.1 The student restates/summarizes information by restating and summarizing main ideas or events in correct sequence after reading a text (e.g., paraphrasing, constructing a topic outline, using graphic organizers) or identifying accurate restatements and summaries of main ideas or events or generalizations of a text

x

       

[5] 2.5.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by identifying the main idea or central concept in various types of texts*

   

x

   

5] 2.5.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by locating information in narrative and informational text to answer questions related to main ideas or key details*

x

 

x

   

[5] 2.5.3 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by identifying or describing related experiences and events to support understanding of a main idea (e.g., what event in history is similar to this one) (L)

x

 

x

   

[5] 2.11.1 The student makes connections between cultural influences/ events by identifying cultural influences in texts (e.g., dialects, customs, traditions, geography) (L)

x

       

 

Reading: Grade 3 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[3] 1.2.1 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by  locating information explicitly stated in narrative and informational text to answer literal-comprehension questions

x

       

[3] 1.2.2 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by  self-monitoring comprehension by making predictions or formulating questions while reading (L)

x

       

[3] 1.2.3. The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by making simple inferences (e.g., predicts logical outcomes)

x

x

x

   

[3] 1.2.4 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by drawing conclusions based on information presented in the text (e.g., cause and effect, character motivation)*

x

x

x

   

[3] 1.3.1 The student reads text aloud by reading orally with rhythm, flow, and expression showing understanding of punctuation and other conventions of print (L)

x

x

     

[3] 1.4.1 The student restates/summarizes information by retelling or dramatizing a story  after reading it (L)

x

       

[3] 1.4.2 The student restates/summarizes information byrestating information after reading a text or identifying accurate restatements

x

       

[3] 1.5.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by  identifying the main idea or central concept in various types of texts

   

x

   

[3] 1.10.1 The student connects themes by making connections between a text and personal experiences…., experiences of others

x

       

[3] 1.11.1 Identifying cultural influences in  texts (e.g., dialects, customs, traditions) (L)

x

       

 

Reading: Grade 4 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[4] 2.2.1 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by locating information explicitly stated in narrative and informational text to answer literal comprehension questions*

x

       

[4] 2.2.2 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by self-monitoring comprehension by formulating questions while reading or rereading (e.g., for clarification, confirmation, correction) (L)

x

       

[4] 2.2.3. The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by making simple inferences(e.g., predicts logical outcomes,deduces missing information, suchas where a story takes place, if not directly stated)

x

x

x

   

[4] 2.2.4 The student comprehends literal or inferred meaning from text by drawing conclusions based on information presented in the text (e.g., cause and effect, character motivation)*

x

x

x

   

[4] 2.3.1 The student reads text aloud by reading orally with rhythm, flow, and expression showing understanding of punctuation and other conventions of print* (L)

x

x

     

[4] 2.4.1 The student restates/summarizes information by retelling a story in correct sequence or identifying the correct sequence of events in a story (L)

x

       

[4] 2.4.2 The student restates/summarizes information by restating and summarizing information after reading a text or identifying accurate restatements and summaries

x

       

[4] 2.5.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by identifying the main idea or central concept in various types of texts*

   

x

   

[4] 2.5.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by locating information in narrative and informational text to answer questions related to main ideas or key details

x

 

x

   

[4] 2.5.3 The student demonstrates an understanding of main idea by identifying or describing related experiences to support understanding of a main idea (L)

x

 

x

   

[4] 2.11.1 The student makes connections between cultural influences/ events by identifying cultural influences in texts (e.g., dialects, customs, traditions)* (L)

x

       

Writing

Writing: Grade 5 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[5] 2.1.1 The student writes about a topic by writing more than one paragraph stating and maintaining a focused idea and including details that support the main idea of each paragraph

   

x

   

[5] 2.1.2 The student writes about a topic by using paragraph form: indents or uses paragraph breaks (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.1.3 The student writes about a topic by organizing ideas logically to establish clear relationships within and between paragraphs (e.g., using transition words or phrases that reveal order or chronology) (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.1.4 The student writes about a topic by writing a concluding statement

   

x

   

[5] 2.2.2 The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences by writing in a variety of nonfiction forms using appropriate information and structure (i.e., step by- step directions, descriptions, observations, or report writing)

x

x

x

   

[5] 2.3.1 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by varying the beginnings, lengths, and patterns of sentences to improve flow and to enhance meaning of writing (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.3.2 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in spelling (e.g., grade appropriate, high frequency words, homophones, and contractions)

   

x

   

[5] 2.3.3 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in punctuation (i.e., end of sentences, commas in dates, salutations and closings in letters, and commas in a series) and capitalization*

   

x

   

[5] 2.3.4 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in usage (i.e., subject/verb agreement, verb tense, sentence fragments and run-on sentences, and possessives) (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.4.1 The student revises writing by rearranging and/or adding details to improve focus, to support main ideas, and to make sequence clear

   

x

   

[5] 2.4.2 The student revises writing by giving/receiving appropriate feedback and using established criteria to review own and others’ written work (e.g., peer conferences, checklists, scoring guides, or rubrics)* (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.5.1 The student documents sources bygiving credit for others’ ideas, images, and information by citing title and source (e.g., author, storyteller, translator, songwriter, or artist) (L)

   

x

   

[5] 2.6.1 The student uses resources by looking up spelling or definitions of words in dictionaries

   

x

   

 

Writing: Grade 3 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

3] 1.1.1 The student writes about a topic by writing complete sentences with a subject and a predicate

   

x

   

[3] 1.1.2 The student writes about a topic by writing a paragraph on a single topic with two or more supporting details

   

x

   

[3] 1.1.3 The student writes about a topic by writing a story or composition

   

x

   

[3] 1.2.1 The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences by choosing the appropriate organizational structure to match a purpose and audience (e.g., letters and notes, recounts, stories, and poems) (L)

x

x

x

   

[3] 1.3.1 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by writing a variety of complete, simple sentences (i.e., statement, question, exclamation)

   

x

   

[3] 1.3.2 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in spelling (e.g., grade appropriate, high-frequency words) (L)

   

x

   

[3] 1.3.3 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in punctuation at the end of sentences and capitalization (i.e., beginning of sentences and proper nouns)

   

x

   

[3] 1.3.4 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by rewriting handwritten work to improve legibility, if necessary, when producing final drafts (L)

   

x

   

[3] 1.4.1 The student revises writing by rearranging and/or adding supporting details to improve clarity.

   

x

   

[3] 1.4.2 The student revises writing by giving/receiving appropriate feedback about written work (L)

   

x

   

[3] 1.5.1 The student documents sources by listing sources or authors and titles of books and other materials when used as references in written work (L)

   

x

   

 

Writing: Grade 4 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[4] 2.1.1 The student writes about a topic by writing a paragraph that maintains a focused idea and includes details that support the main idea

   

x

   

4] 2.1.2 The student writes about a topic by organizing ideas logically (L)

   

x

   

4] 2.1.3 The student writes about a topic by writing a story or composition with a beginning and middle and ending with a concluding statement (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.2.2 The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences by writing in a variety of nonfiction forms using appropriate information and structure (i.e., personal letters, recounts, descriptions or observations)

x

x

x

   

[4] 2.3.1 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by writing a variety of simple and complex sentences including the conjunctions and, or, but, or because

   

x

   

[4] 2.3.2 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in spelling (e.g., grade appropriate, high frequency words and contractions) (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.3.3 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting mistakes in punctuation (i.e., end of sentences, commas in dates, salutations and closings in letters, and commas in series) and capitalization (i.e., book titles, beginning of sentences, and proper nouns)

   

x

   

[4] 2.3.4 The student writes and edits using conventions of Standard English by identifying and/or correcting usage mistakes in subject/verb agreement (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.4.1 The student revises writing by rearranging and/or adding details to improve focus and to support main ideas

   

x

   

[4] 2.4.2 The student revises writing by giving/receiving appropriate feedback and using established criteria to review own and others’ written work (e.g., peer conferences, checklists, scoring guides, or rubrics) (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.5.1 The student documents sources by giving credit for others’ information by citing title and source (e.g., author, storyteller, translator, songwriter, or artist) (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.6.1 The student uses resources by looking up spelling or definitions of words in dictionaries (L)

   

x

   

[4] 2.6.2 The student uses resources by using a thesaurus to find synonyms for common words (L)

   

x

   

Math

Math: Grade 5 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[5] S&P-1 The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data by [designing an investigationand collecting L], organizing, or displaying, using appropriate scale, data in real-world problems, using bar graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, or line graphs with whole numbers up to 50

 

x

(x)

x

 

[5] S&P-2 The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating; drawing or justifying conclusions) by using information from variety of displays (tables, bar graphs, line graphs, or Venn diagrams)

 

(x)

x

   

[5] S&P-3 The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating; drawing or justifying conclusions) by using mode, median, or range with up to 10 pieces of data with a value of 10 or less each

 

(x)

x

   

[5] N-1 The student demonstrates conceptual understanding of whole numbers to millions by reading, writing, ordering, or [counting L]

 

x

 

x

 

[5] PS-1 The student demonstrates an ability to problem solve by selecting and applying an appropriate strategy (e.g., tables, charts, lists, or graphs; guess and check; extended patterns; making a model) to solve a variety of problems and verify the results (M7.2.2)

       

x

5] PS-2 The student demonstrates an ability to problem solve by explaining and verifying results of an original problem and applying what was learned to new situations (M7.2.3)

       

x

 

Math: Grade 3 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[3] S&P-1 The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data by [designing an investigation and collecting, recording L], organizing, displaying, or explaining the classification of data in real-world problems using bar graphs, and [Venn diagrams L]

 

x

(x)

x

 

[3] S&P-2 The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, or justifying conclusions) by using information from a variety of displays (tallies, tables, pictographs, bar graphs, or [Venn diagrams L]

 

(x)

x

   

[3] S&P-3 The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, or justifying conclusions) by using the terms “maximum” or “minimum”

 

(x)

x

   

[3] N-1 The student demonstrates conceptual understanding of whole numbers to one thousand by reading, writing, ordering, or [counting L] (M1.1.1)

 

x

 

x

 

[3] N-3 The student demonstrates conceptual understanding of whole numbers to one thousand by using appropriate representations of ordinal or cardinal numbers (M1.1.4)

 

x

 

x

 

 

Math: Grade 4 GLEs

Investigation

1

2

3

4

5

[4] S&P-1 The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data by [designing an investigation and collecting L], organizing or displaying, using appropriate scale, data in real-world problems, using bar graphs, tables, charts, or diagrams with whole numbers up to 25

 

x

(x)

x

 

4] S&P-2 The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data by using information from a variety of displays (tables, bar graphs, or Venn diagrams)

 

(x)

x

   

[4] S&P-3 The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data by using mode or range with up to 5 pieces of data with a value of 10 or less each

 

(x)

x

   

[4] N-1 The student demonstrates conceptual understanding of whole numbers to ten thousands by reading, writing, ordering, or [counting L]

 

x

 

x

 

[4] PS-5 The student demonstrates the ability to apply mathematical skills and processes across the content strands by using real-world contexts such as social studies, friends, and school

       

x

(L) Some GLEs have been identified as Local. They are for local assessments and will not be on a state assessment.
* PSGLEs repeated with no changes across grade levels are marked with asterisks.

 

Master Materials List

Student Handouts

Items for Group Display

Material Items

Facility/Equipment Requirements

Investigation 1

Bidarki story introduction Image

Bidarki Story, Part 2a Image

Bidarki Story, Part 2b Image

Bidarki Story, Part 3a Image

Bidarki Story, Part 3b Image

Bidarki Story, Conclusion Image

Map Image

Concept Web Worksheet, 1 copy for each small group or pair Image

Science notebooks

Map

Concept Web Worksheet, if desired

Samples of local foods

Bidarki picture or actual bidarki

Chart paper and markers for creating concept map

Pencils

Glue and scissors for gluing worksheets into science notebooks

Overhead or LCD projector

Chart paper or chalkboard

Investigation 2

Fishing Log copies or example Image

Science notebooks

Halibut Cove Story

 

Pictures of traditional , previous and current fishing technologies Image

1 bag each of two types of large dry beans (such as kidney beans and lima beans – one should be bigger than the other)

Small cups, 1 per student

Serving bowls, medium size, 1 per group

Spoons or small tea strainers, 1 per group

Straws, 1 per student

Watch or stopwatch

Glue and scissors

Pencils

Fishery Facts document

Overhead Projector or LCD projector to show fishing technology photos

Investigation 3

Science notebooks

Research Guide

Project Scoring Guide

Research Guide

Project Scoring Guide

Sample posters

Reading or video, if not using the websites included in this investigation

Books for research, Internet sittes and internet access

Poster board, markers, construction paper, glue, scissors

Notecards or scrap paper

Pencils

LCD projector to show websites and sample posters

Overhead projector to show Research Guide, and Scoring Guide

Investigation 4

Human Impact Survey data sheets Image

Data Sheets, if desired

Garbage bags

Pencils and clipboards for each student or group

Markers

Chart paper

Appropriate field location

Chalkboard, Overhead projector or LCD projector to record student data

Investigation 5

Science notebooks

 

Pencils

Posters/papers from Invest. 3

Graphs/displays from Invest. 4

Art supplies, decorations, food for celebration

Supplies for stewardship project as needed

 

Location for presentations and celebration

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